Classical Revival (1895-1950)

Defining Elements of the Classical Revival Style:

  • Rectangular form, usually symmetrical facade
  • One or two stories
  • Gable or low pitched hip roof
  • Accentuated front door, often with a portico or rounded fanlight and pilasters
  • Details influenced by the Greek Revival style and Greek Temple form

Examples of Classical Revival style in Greater Portland:

  • City Hall, Congress Street, Portland (map)

 

Colonial Style (1750 - 1820)

Defining Elements of the Colonial Style:

  • One or two-story form, often with an attic level that is one or two rooms deep
  • Symmetrical facade, usually three or five bays wide
  • A low rubble or cut stone foundation
  • Small multi-paneled sash windows located close to the eave
  • Usually a huge center chimney
  • A central entry door usually paneled, sometimes with a pediment, pilasters or transom window above the door
  • Roof form is usually a gable, but sometimes a gambrel or hip roof
  • Usually wood frame and wood siding

Examples of Colonial Style Architecture in Greater Portland:

Colonial Revival (1880 - 1930)

Defining Elements of the Colonial Revival Style:

  • Rectangular form, usually symmetrical façade.
  • One or two stories.
  • Hip, gable or gambrel roofs. Gambrel types are referred to as Dutch Colonial Revival.
  • Accentuated front door, often with a portico or pediment supported by pilasters.
  • Windows are usually multi-pane sashes commonly grouped in pairs. A single pane in the lower sash is common.
  • Porches and enclosed sunroom additions with columns or pilasters are common.

Examples of Colonial Revival Style Architecture in Greater Portland:

Eastlake & Stick Styles (1860-1910)

Defining Elements of the Eastland & Stick Styles:

  • Gable or hip roof with projecting eaves and exposed framing.
  • Simulated framing on exterior walls, especially in the gable end.
  • Symmetrical or asymmetrical façade.
  • Side hall or center hall plans.
  • Porches with roofs supported by columns with diagonal bracing.
  • Projecting bays or upper stories are common.
  • Singular or paired windows. 2/2 sashes are common.
  • Wood frame.
  • Usually wood shingles or board siding.

Examples of Eastland & Stick Style Architecture in Greater Portland:

Federal Style (1780-1830)

Defining Elements of the Federal Style:

  • Usually two or more stories to emphasize height.
  • Symmetrical façade, usually five bays wide.
  • A high stone foundation sometimes set on an elevated portion of the building lot.
  • Multi-paned sash windows symmetrically arranged and often flanked by wooden shutters.
  • Usually interior wall chimneys.
  • A central entry door with flanking side lights and a fan light above.
  • Semicircular or rectangular portico.
  • Roof form is usually a low-sloped hip roof or gable roof.
  • Details and scale emphasize height and lightness.
  • Use of Palladian window common.
  • Brick and wood frame construction common.

Examples of Federal Style Architecture in Greater Portland:

Gothic Style (1840-1880)

Defining Elements of the Gothic Style:

  • One or two stories in height.
  • Steeply pitched roof with cross gables or gable dormers.
  • Usually a symmetrical façade three or five bays wide.
  • Pointed arch windows and doors are common.
  • Singular or paired multi-paned sash windows, some with leaded glass.
  • Decorative verge boards, also called 'gingerbread' trim, in the gable end.
  • Wood frame construction is most common, although there are masonry examples.
  • Wood siding may be flush to simulate a stone surface. Board and batten siding is common.
  • Bay window and porches are common.
  • Machine cut trim.
  • Thin elaborately detailed brick chimneys.
  • Siding may be flush to simulate a stone surface.

Examples of Gothic Style Architecture in Greater Portland:

Greek Revival (1825-1850)

Defining Elements of the Greek Revival Style:

  • One or two stories in height.
  • Examples with a symmetrical façade are usually five bays wide. Example with an asymmetrical façade are usually three bays wide.
  • Urban examples often asymmetrical with a side hall plan.
  • High style examples emulate a Greek temple front with large columns or pilasters supporting a triangular pediment.
  • Vernacular examples usually have pilasters and may have a triangular pediment in the gable end.
  • Brick and wood frame construction common.
  • Large multi-paned double or triple hung sash windows 6/6 or 9/9 window pattern are common.
  • Usually a wide cornice band below the eave.
  • Entry doors often with ornate lintels and wide pilasters, often with flanking side lights.
  • Siding may be flush to simulate a stone surface. 

Examples of Greek Revival Style Architecture in Greater Portland:

 

Italianate Style (1840-1880)

Defining Elements of the Italianate Style:

  • One to three stories in height.
  • Low pitched roof with wide overhanging eaves. Vernacular examples may have a gable roof with the gable end facing the street.
  • Modillions or cornice brackets supporting the overhanging eaves.
  • Usually an asymmetrical façade.
  • Side hall or center hall plans.
  • Decorate quoins at the corners.
  • Projecting bays, one or two stories in height and elevated porches are very common.
  • Tall narrow windows, some arched or curved at the top. Sometimes paired. 2/2 sashes are common.
  • Double entry doors some with arched tops or etched glass.
  • Projecting hoods supported by brackets above doors and windows.
  • Cupola or tower.
  • Wood frame or masonry construction.

Examples of Italianate Architecture in Greater Portland:

Post Modern Style (1965-present)

Portland Museum of Art, Congress Square, Portland

Portland Museum of Art, Congress Square, Portland

Defining Elements of the Post Modern Style:

  • Mansard, gable, and hip roofs.
  • Traditional windows asymmetrically or symmetrically arranged.
  • Influenced by traditional building styles, particularly the Colonial Style.
  • Very loose interpretations of building details, especially door surrounds and eave details.

Examples of Post Modern Style Architecture in Greater Portland:

Queen Anne Style (1870-1910)

Defining Elements of the Queen Anne Style:

  • Eclectic form and asymmetrical façade.
  • Steeply pitched, irregular roof forms.
  • Multiple gables and dormers.
  • Irregular floor plans.
  • Towers and turrets are common.
  • Porches with roofs supported by columns with diagonal bracing.
  • Projecting bay or upper stories are common.
  • Multiple window shapes and groupings. Geometric glass window panes and stained glass window panes are common.
  • Wood frame is usual, although brick examples exist locally.
  • Multiple tall narrow chimneys with ornate brickwork and decorate details.
  • Multiple textures and siding materials.
  • Many bays and extensive porches with machined trim and details.

Examples of Queen Anne Style Architecture in Greater Portland:

Second Empire Style (1860-1890)

Defining Elements of the Second Empire Style:

  • Similar in detail to Italianate Style, but with a Mansard roof, often with dormers.
  • Modillions or cornice brackets supporting the overhanging eaves.
  • Symmetrical or asymmetrical façade.
  • Side hall or center hall plans.
  • Decorate quoins at the corner.
  • Projecting bays, one or two stories in height and elevated porches are very common.
  • Tall narrow windows, some arched or curved at the top. Sometimes paired. 2/2 sashes are common.
  • Projecting hoods supported by brackets above doors and windows.
  • Square tower or turret common.
  • Wood frame or masonry construction.
  • Very common in Portland for buildings constructed after Great Fire of 1866, commercial and multi-family buildings from this period are usually masonry.
  • Commercial buildings often have elaborate wood or cast iron storefronts.
  • Multi-color slate roofs common.

Examples of Second Empire Style Architecture in Greater Portland:

Shingle Style (1880-1930)

Fifth Maine Museum, Peaks Island, Maine

Fifth Maine Museum, Peaks Island, Maine

Defining Elements of the Shingle Style:

  • Overarching steeply pitched roof.
  • Gambrel roofs are common.
  • Wood shingle cladding or roof forms and walls.
  • Asymmetrical façade.
  • Extensive porches.
  • Natural stone foundation.
  • Large chimneys, sometimes constructed from natural stone.
  • Exaggeration of the horizontal with upper floor overhanging the lower floor and long wrap around porches.

Examples of Shingle Style Architecture in Greater Portland: